Surah Fatiha is the first Surah of Quran which revealed in Makkah. It consists of Seven verses. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم is also included into it as An Ayah.
According to Hadith, Surah Fatiha is called As Salah because without Surah Fatiha, Salah is invalid.
“There is no prayer for the one who does not recite the Opening of the Book [i.e., al-Faatihah].” [Sahih al-Bukhaari, 714]
Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) also called it As Shifa ( cure) from illness and Al Ruqiya ( remedy). Recite it with believe,Allah will surely help you
Surah Fatiha starts with the name of Allah & then Allah’s most beautiful names & high Attributes Ar Rahmaan & Ar Raheem are mentioned in the first ayah through which Allah shows His mercy.
Al-Qurtubi said, “The proof that these names are derived (from Ar-Rahmah), is what At-Tirmidhi recorded – and graded Sahih from `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf that he heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) Say, (Allah the Exalted said, ‘I Am Ar-Rahman. I created the Raham (womb, i.e. family relations) and derived a name for it from My Name. Hence, whoever keeps it, I will keep ties to him, and whoever severs it, I will sever ties with him.’) He then said, “This is a text that indicates the derivation.” He then said, “The Arabs denied the name Ar-Rahman, because of their ignorance about Allah and His attributes.” Al-Qurtubi said, “It was said that both Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim have the same meaning, such as the words Nadman and Nadim, as Abu `Ubayd has stated. Abu `Ali Al-Farisi said, `Ar-Rahman, which is exclusively for Allah, is a name that encompasses every type of mercy that Allah has. Ar-Rahim is what effects the believers, for Allah said, (And He is ever Rahim (merciful) to the believers.)’ (33:43) Also, Ibn `Abbas said – about Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim, `They are two soft names, one of them is softer than the other (meaning it carries more implications of mercy).”’Tafseer Ibn Kathir
He is the most merciful. Rahmaan and Rahim both derived from Raham (رحم) which simply means mercy. Allah emphasizes on His countless mercy by using Ar Rahmaan & Ar Rahim together.
After saying that Allah is the most merciful, In the next ayah Allah tells that He is also the owner/master of the day of judgment.Even though He is the most merciful that His mercy overcoms His Wrath. Still He is the owner of judgment day and one should not forget about judgement day.
In this ayah, We said to Allah that We worship You alone, & we ask for help from You alone. We submit ourselves to You alone & we ask you to help us because only You alone can help us.
Al-Fatihah directs the believers to invoke Allah to guide them to the straight path, which is the true religion, and to help them remain on that path in this life, and to pass over the actual Sirat (bridge over hell that everyone must pass over) on the Day of Judgment. On that Day, the believers will be directed to the gardens of comfort in the company of the Prophets, the truthful ones, the martyrs and the righteous. Al-Fatihah also warns about misguided ones who will face Allah’s wrath on the day of judgment. ibn Kathir